During its colonisation era, Belgium controlled several colonies/concessions during its history, the Belgian Congo (modern DRC) from 1908 to 1960, and Ruanda-Urundi (Rwanda and Burundi) from 1922 to 1962. It also had a small concession in China and was a co-administrator of the Tangier International Zone in Morocco.
What did Belgium do to Africa?
On February 5, 1885, Belgian King Leopold II established the Congo Free State by brutally seizing the African landmass as his personal possession. Rather than control the Congo as a colony, as other European powers did throughout Africa, Leopold privately owned the region.
How long did Belgium rule the Congo?
Belgian Congo, French Congo Belge, former colony (coextensive with the present-day Democratic Republic of the Congo) in Africa, ruled by Belgium from 1908 until 1960.
What resources did Belgium have?
Resources and power
Historically, coal was Belgium’s most important mineral resource. There were two major coal-mining areas. The coal in the Sambre-Meuse valley occurred in a narrow band across south-central Belgium from the French border through Mons, Charleroi, Namur, and Liège.
How bad was the Belgian Congo?
Diseases imported by Arab traders, European colonists and African porters ravaged the Congolese population and “greatly exceeded” the numbers killed by violence. Smallpox, sleeping sickness, amoebic dysentery, venereal diseases (especially syphilis and gonorrhea), and swine influenza were particularly severe.
What African colonies did Belgium control?
Belgium created two colonies in Africa: the entities now known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo (formerly the Republic of Zaire) and the Republic of Rwanda, previously Ruanda-Urundi, a former German African colony that was given to Belgium to administer after the defeat of Germany in World War I.
How many Congolese were killed by Belgium?
Although Leopold II established Belgium as a colonial power in Africa, he is best known for the widespread atrocities that were carried out under his rule, as a result of which as many as 10 million people died in the Congo Free State.
Why did Leopold I believe it was necessary for Belgium to colonize an African nation?
King Leopold II of Belgium made it his personal goal to acquire a large area of land in Africa and exploit it for personal wealth. … It is estimated that over 10 million Congo natives died under Leopold’s rule .
What happened when Belgium left the Congo?
The crisis began almost immediately after the Congo became independent from Belgium and ended, unofficially, with the entire country under the rule of Joseph-Désiré Mobutu. … A nationalist movement in the Belgian Congo demanded the end of colonial rule: this led to the country’s independence on 30 June 1960.
What bad things did King Leopold do?
By 1908, Leopold II’s rule was deemed so cruel that European leaders, themselves violently exploiting Africa, condemned it and the Belgian parliament forced him to relinquish control of his fiefdom.
What is Belgium known for producing?
The nation’s main crops include barley, corn, potatoes, sugar beets, wheat, and assorted fruits and vegetables. Sugar beets, potatoes, and barley are the main staples. In 1999, the country produced 6.15 million metric tons of sugar beets, 2.7 million metric tons of potatoes, and 1.63 million tons of wheat.
What made Belgium rich?
Today Belgium is one of the richest countries in Europe, but all that money came from my country. These buildings were paid for by King Leopold II. He took Congo as his own personal possession and made himself rich. … Today, Belgium is one of the richest countries in Europe.
What is Belgium main source of income?
Despite the heavy industrial component, services account for 74.9% of GDP, while agriculture accounts for only 1% of GDP. With exports equivalent to over two-thirds of GNP, Belgium depends heavily on world trade.
What eventually led to Leopold II giving up his control of the Congo?
7. What eventually led to Leopold II giving up his control of the Congo? After news of the atrocities gained international attention, he was pressured to give up control over the Congo.
What did rock breaking refer to?
To what did ‘rock breaking’ refer? It was to refer to breaking of all resistance and state.
How did colonialism affect Congo?
It is estimated that about 10 million Congolese were died or affected due to hunger, disease and starvation. The territory of Congo was rich in ivory and other minerals, including diamonds. The British, French and Germans were jealous that King Leopold owned such a vast rich area of Africa.